Northern China’s Water Storage;
The South to North Water Transfer Project;
Within my interviews I have found that there is a drastic change in consciousness associated with daily water consumption in both a school setting compared to that of a home setting. Within a school setting participants mentioned that they use methods of curtailment, specifically when they turn off the water while brushing their teeth and taking shorter showers. The individuals even mentioned other methods that could possibly save water that both their home and campus could implement. An example of the efficiency actions one could take that they mentioned was replacing toilets, sinks, and old running equipment (pipes,etc). Looking at two interviews I took in particular, I have remarked on body movements, tone of voice, and any other major points in their answer I felt necessary to include.
ü When you think of water, what is the first thing that comes to your mind?
- Confusion, distraught mannerisms
ü On a daily basis, how often do you use Beijing water?
-Confident about how much water he uses. Strong, concise tone.
ü Is your water usage different when you are a student?
- Also confident
ü How often do you use a location’s water supply when you are not on campus? What locations?
ü If you were to estimate how much water you use a day, how much would it be?
- Ten cups a day…very unsure about this answer.
ü Tell me about your water usage when you go home to visit family or friends.
-Home I use more water because, he can take more showers. One time a day back at home. (Mentioned in the above paragraph)
ü What if Beijing charged more for their water?
-If this true, I must be use less water. It is not okay. (This will be important to note in my research.)
ü Do you know where Beijing’s water comes from?
ü Nding River (Sp?). That is where water comes from here? That is what he thinks. He thinks Beijing’s water is going away to another city or province.
**When I received this answer I took it upon myself to look up where the majority of groundwater the interviewee was potentially speaking of. Here is the route I found in my research that provides approximately 2.0 billion cubic meters of water;
(I will put this point directly into my research, mostly because I have not spoken about groundwater supply in Beijing. This will be important to tie my argument together. )
- Do you have any additional comments?
There were none.
- How did this interview make you feel?
I just received an uncomfortable glare.
- When you think of water, what is the first thing that comes to your mind?
There is a light in her eye that shows confidence but at the same time she is serious about water scarcity.
- On a daily basis, how often do you use Beijing water?
Awareness of industry is important to note that she had.
- Is your water usage different when you are a student?
Very confident about answer. I got the exact answer of, “College students have a high awareness of protecting water.” I wanted a further answer, so I asked “why?”
The answer was plain and simple, “Because we are educated”.
- How often do you use a location’s water supply when you are not on campus? What locations?
This is in the audio. There is nothing I found significant about this answer.
- If you were to estimate how much water you use a day, how much would it be?
Hard to describe, she drinks about two bottle a day. 2 liters. I put an asterisk on this answer.
- Tell me about your water usage when you go home to visit family or friends
It was described as being the same. However, that is currently an outlier answer. I mostly have received responses that look at more of a consciousness within a school setting. However, there are numerous confounding variables that can alter this answer (province, etc).
- What if Beijing charged more for water?
There was a strong ageing of this. The exact words were “It prohibits the use of too much water. It will create more awareness.”
- Do you know where Beijing’s water comes from?
They did not know. However, they knew it was from some province in the South of China.
- Do you have any additional comments?
- How did this interview make you feel?
She felt relaxed, because we know each other well.
Within these two interviews that I chose, I found a theme of unawareness to where Beijing’s water supply is derived from. I will look into this in more interviews and perhaps push the question a bit more to obtain a more detailed response to this lack of information. Another theme that was a bit difficult to explain in this interview was the mannerisms the interviewees made throughout the interview. When answering difficult questions, such as how much water they use a day their hands got irritable. As for their eyes, they widened slightly. I want to point this slight nervous and off guard body responses in my paper. Other themes include those that I have mentioned above.
Detailed Outline of Paper to Date
- Brief introduction on water scarcity in China. Here is an example excerpt I would include;
As of 2013, Beijing has an annual water consumption rate of 3.6 billion cubic meters, far more than the 2.1 billion cubic meters that is locally available. Such a rate of consumption is far from a new issue for the capital of Beijing, and collectively the Northern Region of China. In fact, the per capital annual water rate is around 120 cubic meters, a level well below the United Nations water scarcity threshold.
- Introduction of the social implications and the economic pillar that is associated with water scarcity. Here is an example excerpt I would include;
Water scarcity is one of this capital’s and northern China’s greatest challenges, and without a solution this issue, disaster is inevitable. Research on Beijing’s water crisis, and its social prospective is crucial to commencing the wheel of solution that this region is in dire need of. Especially, if we are looking at city who has a projected water capacity of 12 million people, and is currently supporting almost 20 million. There is no other option besides change. To fully understand how to fix this issue sustainable development should be one of its major goals. If the government and its people were to take into consideration the potential, rights, and responsibility of its population, human dignity could be achieved. The construction of this human dignity can be separated into three major sectors of the economic, social, and environmental characteristics. With these characteristics, human dignity, and with time equity towards its population’s water usage, Northern China would hold the key to opening the door of sustainable development; in this case, it’s water supply. （I hope to alter this as the paper progresses and put in the findings of my interviews.）
1st Main Body Paragraph
- This paragraph will be reserved for in-depth information on the South- North Transfer Project (南水北调工程). An example of what this paragraph will include will be;
Northern China is currently trying to compensate for this lack of water through a project known as the South- North Transfer Project (南水北调工程). This is a multi- decade project anticipated to reroute 44.8 billion cubic meters of water annually from the Yangtze River to the Yellow River and Hai River. Its central route, which is the focus of this paper, is from the upper reaches of the Han River to Beijing and Tianjin. The intentions of this project are simple, to provide an improvement of water resources in Northern China. However, it’s environmental and social costs are far more complex. With the construction of this diversion project, industrialization zones have been built along its path.
- I also hope to further my objective perspective on this project in this paragraph. The excerpt above is merely a sample of the data that I have collected.
2nd Main Body Paragraph
- I will use this paragraph to talk about the negative implications with project will cause, and to be fair to both sides, it’s positive aspects. An example of what the paragraph will look like includes;
This poses a serious source of water contamination that is being diverted to the north, causing individuals to decrease their water consumption to eliminate the risk of personal contamination. Contamination on this level has occurred through chemical drainage of factories built along this diversion project. With such industrial effluent, there are numerous factors that lead to negative effects on human health. These components include petrochemicals and chlorinated solvents. (Positive implications will also be included)
- Within these negativities I will also mention its social consequences. An example will look like this;
This poses a serious source of water contamination that is being diverted to the north, causing individuals to decrease their water consumption to eliminate the risk of personal contamination. Contamination on this level has occurred through chemical drainage of factories built along this diversion project. With such industrial effluent, there are numerous factors that lead to negative effects on human health. These components include petrochemicals and chlorinated solvents.
3rd Main Body Paragraph
- I will use this paragraph to talk about China’s demand for the need to manipulate the environment for its own benefit, especially after the Cultural Revolution. Having this environmental scope will be crucial to standing up the environmental pillar the is needed in terms of achieving sustainability. An example of this is below;
To understand the need for this project, one must look at it in a perspective of more than just providing water to a growing population. Instead, a historical perspective is crucial to understanding China’s demand for the need to manipulate the environment for its own benefit. This aspiration began in the eighteen and nineteenth after the traditional empire. During this period, a long-term trend of exploitation of the environment began, specifically due to the spike in population and need for development. Development of this nature brought on this was when cultivation of maize, sweet potatoes and other cash crops that began to overtake China’s landmasses, causing most of the country to take initiative in clearing our landmasses for agriculture. In their perspective, growth was key to their success as a nation.
4th Main Body Paragraph
- This paragraph will be mainly about the information I have gathered in my interview. More of a detailed analysis on this will be in my final paper.
- I know for a fact that my conclusion will be the most difficult part of my paper. It will most likely end up being one or two main body paragraphs. However, these are a few concepts I would like to include, and perhaps expand on? What do you think?
- An example of what I would want to begin with; For our survival as a human race we use water for our benefit and energy. Water in a global sense is giving us a service. In fact, the biosphere not only provides us with water, but it also cleans our water. However, this service occurs at a much slower rate than we are consuming and contaminating. This is where the theory of sustainable development comes into play. The three spheres of this theory, economic, social, and environment pillars are need to sustain our environment. Humans must not forget the limit of the world we live in, and thus water should be cherished not exploited.
- However, there is something missing my paper. I can’t quite find a way to make it complete. I’ll have to plan this a bit further.